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13. Requirements Engineering
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  3. The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
  4. Requirements Engineering | The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.

So the following aspects of a new performance paradigm are now achievable: You can deliver that application on time and within budget while meeting your performance requirements - with the first release. You can know the hardware capacity requirements for your new application before it is developed. Architects know that their architecture will support performance requirements before committing to code.

Project managers can track the status of performance while the software is being developed. Performance specialists have time to run performance tests, load and stress tests without encountering "surprises. Software that meets performance requirements is delivered on time and within budget. SPE is language and platform independent.

Performance models are constructed from architectural and design-level information.

Systems engineering

The execution behavior of the software will be different with different languages and platforms. Nevertheless, this is reflected in the resource requirement specifications, not the model structure. SPE uses deliberately simple models of software processing with the goal of using the simplest possible model that identifies problems with the system architecture, design, or implementation plans. It is relatively easy to construct and solve these models to determine whether the proposed software is likely to meet performance requirements.

As the software development process proceeds, we refine the models to more closely represent the performance of the emerging software and re-evaluate performance. SPE can be easily integrated into the software development process. It has been used with traditional process models, such as the waterfall model. It works especially well with iterative, incremental processes such as the Unified Process. With an iterative, incremental process, you can use SPE techniques to assess and reduce the risk of performance failure at the project outset, and at each subsequent iteration.

Conclusion Thus, Software performance engineering provides a systematic, cost-effective approach to managing software systems performance. Use of SPE can reduce project costs and eliminate project failures due to performance problems. It can also improve your level of service to customers, reduce business costs, help you use computer resources more efficiently, and improve your competitive position. SPE is sensible, and it works! More Information We offer a full range of consulting services and training that are designed to help you achieve your performance and scalability requirements quickly and cost-effectively.

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Connie U. Smith and Dr. Lloyd G. You can order it from Amazon. Performance Engineering Services. For a long time, the ontology for RE or systems analysis has been limited to those dealing with entities a static ontology and activities a dynamic ontology. Recent movements to object orientation for modelling and analysis have not ventured much beyond these traditional grounds. The deeper significance of the explicit representation of goals in RE is the recognition of the need for intentional concepts when doing RE, of which goal is one of the most central.

Intentional concepts allow one to express that the world can be other than what it is.

The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.

Goals convey alternate visions of the world as one would desire. Other intentional concepts convey knowledge, belief, intention, ability, commitment, and so forth. Considering goals raises the possibility of success and failure, not just truth versus falsity. Goals lead to the exploration and consideration of alternatives, decision spaces, tradeoffs, and decisions. Very importantly, it allows the expression of freedom within such spaces.

One can state a goal without having to specify how it is to be achieved.

Requirements Engineering | The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.

This allows openness and freedom to be dealt with and reasoned about in RE. If and when appropriate, a goal can be elaborated on incrementally, which may eliminate or reduce some areas of freedom while opening up others. It is this family of related concepts that can add considerably to RE across the board. Goal orientation can therefore be seen as a fundamental movement in RE to extend its traditional ontology to encompass intentional concepts. If goal concepts indeed have such fundamental significance in RE, then it would be desirable to seek some coherent view of the various notions of goal within the field.

If the various goal-oriented approaches can be put together, one would hope to have a stronger framework that takes advantage of the contributions from the many streams of RE research. We do not know to what extent such a reconciliation or even unification might be feasible. However, even if such attempts are not successful, we would gain better understanding of the issues from the difficulties encountered.

One approach is to study ontological issues directly. The role and significance of ontologies have been studied within RE e. An extension of such foundational studies to include intentional concepts could help consolidate the diverse notions of goal and goal-oriented approaches in RE.


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A more concrete approach is to analyze and synthesize the many goal concepts and operations used in various areas of RE. Prat has approached this from a linguistic perspective [Prat97]. One could also start from conceptual frameworks that have been developed for characterizing and understanding the relationships among the various activities, issues, and aspects of RE.


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A number of such frameworks have been proposed. For example, among the more recent ones: Pohl [Pohl93] proposed to see the RE process as progressing along three dimensions — specification, representation, and agreement; Sutcliffe [Sutcliffe96] considered RE from the viewpoint of task activities, initiating conditions, and several product dimensions; Zave [Zave97] used two major dimensions — problems and contributions to solutions — to classify research efforts in RE. All three frameworks offer considerable insight in relating the diverse aspects of RE, although none offers any immediate suggestions on how goals might have an overall role in RE.

Most requirements techniques have focused on the objectives of achieving completeness, consistency, and precision in moving towards the final requirements document. In contrast, during the earlier stages of the requirements process, it is more important to model and analyze stakeholder interests, and how they might be addressed or compromised by various system-and-environment alternatives.

Distinguishing the needs of early vs. In attempting to reconcile and unify goal-oriented concepts and approaches in RE, at least the following research issues need to be addressed:. We have argued for the need to develop an overall view of goal concepts in RE and goal-oriented approaches to RE. We noted that the wide-spread adoption of goal concepts in many RE framework in diverse areas suggests that goals may be a core concept for RE in general.

Nevertheless, different areas and stages of RE may have distinct needs, and these may present substantial research challenges in the quest for a unified goal-oriented approach for RE. Pursuing these issues could shed light on our understanding of RE as well as on the role of goals in RE. Anton, "Goal-based Requirements Analysis. Requirements Eng. April Boehm, H. IFIP , pp. Thesis, also Tech.

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Nixon, E. Yu, and Mylopoulos, J. Dardenne, A. Dubois, E. Yu, and M. Greenspan, J. Mylopoulos, and A. Thesis, Dept. Software Eng. Jacobs and R. On Software Eng. Mylopoulos, "Information Modeling in the Time of the Revolution", submitted for publication.

Nuseibeh, J. Kramer, and A. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, , pp. Pohl, Process-Centered Requirements Engineering. Pohl and P. Potts, K.