Guide The Visual Neurosciences. Volumes 1,2

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Contents:
  1. Visual cortex
  2. Description
  3. The visual neurosciences - Ghent University Library

Glial-specific proteins such as … glial fibrillary acidic protein GFAP , Bcl-2 and complement-3 receptor Ox were examined using immunohistochemistry.

Visual cortex

Ganglion cells that survived the second axotomy were quantified on retinal flat mounts by retrograde labeling from the graft. Results: GFAP expression in astrocytes and Muller cells was elevated in axotomized retinas when compared to controls, and an additional up-regulation in Muller cells was found in retinas following ganglion cell regeneration.

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Increased GFAP expression in retinas containing regenerated neurons was accompanied by increased Bcl-2 expression with latter being confined to Muller cells. Moreover, re-axotomy of the regenerated axons within the graft did not result in significant retrograde degeneration of RGCs within 28 days. Conclusions: The data suggest that the graft stabilizes the regenerating RGCs to an extent reminiscent of peripheral neurons, a process that may involve the interaction between neuronal and glial elements.


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Keywords: nerve injury, axonal regeneration, nerve grafting, rat retina. Abstract: Purpose. Visual evoked potential VEP recordings were applied to evaluate whether they could demonstrate the possible training effects at the cortical level. We applied a specially designed computer program in the training. Subjective assessment, static and kinetic perimetry, and pattern … reversal hemifield VEP recordings were used to detect the possible changes.

Two patients showed improvements immediately after the training in static perimetry. Further improvements were detected at a later follow-up in three patients. With kinetic perimetry, improvements were detected in three patients. The visual field defect was detected with VEP recordings in four patients before the training, and improvements could be verified with the method in three patients, two of which clearly improved in the static perimetry as well. In three patients, the visual defect diminished with the computer-assisted method.

It seems evident that visual field defects resulting from stroke can be partially restored even in the chronic phase. Keywords: visual field defect, chronic stroke, rehabilitation, computer-assisted training, perimetry, visual evoked potential, plasticity. Authors: Matarredona, Esperanza R. Meyer, Morten Seiler, Rolf W. Widmer, Hans R. Abstract: Purpose: To analyze the effects of CGP , a compound structurally related to deprenyl, on survival and function of fetal ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

Tyrosine hydroxylase TH and glial fibrillary acidic protein GFAP immunocytochemistry was performed to allow analysis of dopaminergic neurons and astroglial cells, respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase activity in the culture medium … served as a measure of cell death. Control and CGP treated cultures were grafted into 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, and graft survival and function evaluated 9 weeks posttransplantation.

Results: FFRT cultures treated with CGP contained significantly more two fold surviving TH-immunoreactive -ir neurons and decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity in the culture medium compared to controls.

CGP pretreatment of donor cultures did not improve TH-ir cell survival in the grafts nor did it alter functional recovery as compared to controls. Conclusions: CGP is an effective survival factor for cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons. However, CGP pretreatment does not ameliorate survival and function of the dopaminergic neurons after grafting into a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Keywords: tissue culture, rat, deprenyl, Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, tyrosine hydroxylase, neural transplantation, Parkinson's disease.

Abstract: Purpose: A major issue in analysis of experimental results after spinal cord injury is spontaneous functional recovery induced by remaining nerve fibers. The authors investigated the relationship between the degree of locomotor recovery and the percentage and location of the fibers that spared spinal cord transection.

Methods: The spinal cords of 12 adult rats were transected at T9 with a razor blade, which often resulted in sparing of nerve fibers in the ventral spinal cord. The degree of locomotor recovery was highly correlated with the percentage of the remaining fibers in the ventral and ventrolateral funiculi. In one of the rats, 4.

Therefore, for studies with spinal cord transection, the completeness of sectioning should be carefully checked before any conclusion can be reached. The fact that the degree of locomotor recovery is correlated with the percentage of remaining fibers in the ventrolateral spinal cord, exclusive of most of the descending motor tracts, may imply an essential role of propriospinal connections in the initiation of spontaneous locomotor recovery.

Keywords: spinal cord transection, remaining spinal fibers, white matter, ventrolateral funiculus, locomotion, rat. Dedkov, Eduard I. Wang, Eugenia. Methods: One hind limb in young adult rats was … permanently denervated. Denervated and corresponding contralateral control muscles were removed for biochemical and morphological analysis from 2 days to 25 months after denervation. Ultrastructural analysis showed a complex mix of muscle fiber atrophy, dying muscle nuclei and muscle fibers, and newly forming muscle fibers in the same tissue. However, in contrast to regeneration, the elevated level of eEF1A-1 did not return to the basal minimal level.


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The specific cellular basis for the increase in eEF1A-1 could not be determined from this study. Keywords: skeletal muscle, denervation, peptide elongation factors, ultrastructure, rat. Authors: Hentschel, S. Lewerenz, A. Nieber, K.

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PSPs were evoked by electrical stimulation. The effect was more pronounced in the presence of … adenosine re-uptake inhibitor S- p-nitrobenzyl thioguanosine NBTG and deaminase inhibitor erythro 2-hydroxynonyl adenine EHNA ; the effect was completely reversed by bovine adenosine deaminase. Their activation contributes to PSP inhibition by adenosine during hypoxia.

Roles of cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2 on the retinal function of adult mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 11;54 13 PLoS One , 14;8 11 :e PLoS One; 8 8 :e Neural Circuits; Neuroscience, IOVS, 54 5 Eur J Neurosci. Figure 2 on journal cover page. Neuroscience Vol ; NeuroImage Vol 60 1 2 ; Biomedical Optics. Faculty of Biology. Journal of Vision, 8 4 :5, Visual Neurosci.

Brain Res. Comp Neurol. Exp Brain Res.

The visual neurosciences - Ghent University Library

Neuroimage Vision Research. Cerebral Cortex. Nature : Physiopathology, diagnosis, course, principles of treatment. Neuroreport 5: Comparison with cortico-tectal cells. Neuroreport 4 8 : Differences between bar and grating stimuli.